Frequency of Hypertensive Retinopathy, on the basis of Imtiaz's Grading System, at Larkana Pakistan


  • Syed Imtiaz Ali Shah, Huda Fatima, Azizullah Jalbani, Shujaat Ali Shah, Partab Rai Darikta Dargai Shaikh



Purpose: To determine the frequency of hypertensive retinopathy on the basis of “Imtiaz's Grading System of Hypertensive Retinopathy”, at Larkana Pakistan.

Study Design:  Case series study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology and Medical Unit 1 Chandka Medical College Hospital Larkana, Pakistan from January 2016 to January 2018.

Material and Methods: This study was conducted from January 2016 to January 2018 on 288 clinically diagnosed patients of hypertension by at least two senior consultants simultaneously and selected in accordance with inclusion and exclusion criteria. A standard proforma was filled in for every patient. Complete clinical examination including fundoscopy and blood pressure level was recorded. SPSS version 20 was used for data entry and analysis.

Results: Utilizing Imtiaz's Grading System of Hypertensive Retinopathy, out of the total 288 patients, 87 (30.21%) had hypertensive retinopathy. There were 39 (44.83%) male and 48 (55.17%) female patients. There were 51 (58.62%) patients who had Grade I hypertensive retinopathy, 19 (21.84%) patients had Grade II hypertensive retinopathy and 17 (19.54%) patients had Grade III hypertensive retinopathy. There were 83.9% patients presenting with headache, 35.6% complained of blurred vision, 17.2% patients complained of floaters, 8% had diplopia, 5.7% patients complained of pain in the eyes and 10.3% patients presented with transient visual loss (amaurosis fugax).

Conclusion: Early detection and management of hypertension and its systemic complications to prolong the life span of hypertensive patients, is possible if symptoms are given importance towards diagnosis of hypertension.

Keywords: Hypertensive retinopathy, Hypertension, Headache, Diplopia.




How to Cite

Partab Rai Darikta Dargai Shaikh SIASHFAJSAS. Frequency of Hypertensive Retinopathy, on the basis of Imtiaz’s Grading System, at Larkana Pakistan. pak J Ophthalmol [Internet]. 2018 Oct. 1 [cited 2022 May 18];34(4). Available from:



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