Causes of Visual Impairment in a Sample of Adult Iraqi Patients

Doi: 10.36351/pjo.v40i3.1799


  • Zainab Al-Khafaji
  • Mohammed Suhail Najm Al Salam



Purpose:  To identify causes of visual impairment in adult patients seeking treatment at teaching hospital in Iraq.

Study Design:  Descriptive observational.

Place and Duration of Study:  Ibn Al-Haytham Teaching Eye Hospital (IAHTEH) in Baghdad, Iraq during the year 2023.

Methods:  This study comprised of 125,804 adults. All the participants had comprehensive history and ocular examination. Mild, moderate and sever visual impairment were defined as from 6/9 to 6/18, 6/24 to 6/36 and 6/60 or below respectively.

Results:  Among 125,804 patients, the breakdown of conditions was as follows: 60,650 (48%) had cataracts, 37,741 (30%) had refractive errors, 12,071 (10%) had diabetic retinopathy, 8,328 (7%) had glaucoma, and 7,014 (5%) had experienced trauma. Most patients (54%) had severe visual impairment, followed by moderate (29%) and mild (17%) impairment. The majority of cases (45%) were in individuals aged 60 years and older, with 26% in the 40-59 years age group and 29% in the 20-39 years age group. Diabetic retinopathy was most common in the 40-59 years age group, while glaucoma and cataracts were predominantly in those aged 60 and above. Refractive errors and trauma were mainly found in the 20-39 years age group. Females accounted for 63% of patients with reduced vision, whereas males predominated among trauma cases, with 29% of trauma cases involving blunt trauma.

Conclusion:  Cataract is the most prevalent condition in older patients. Younger adults frequently experience refractive errors and trauma. Females are more likely to have reduced vision, whereas males are more prone to trauma-related vision issues.




How to Cite

Al-Khafaji Z, Al Salam MSN. Causes of Visual Impairment in a Sample of Adult Iraqi Patients: Doi: 10.36351/pjo.v40i3.1799. pak J Ophthalmol [Internet]. 2024 Jul. 1 [cited 2024 Jul. 14];40(3). Available from:



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